ahJk; CNu ahtUk; NfsPh;  Yātum Ūrē Yāvarum Kēlīr

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         
     
 

3.      rPdhtpd; Quanzhou jkpo;f; fy;ntl;L:

,e;jj; jkpo;f; fy;ntl;lhdJ 1956Mk; Mz;by; fz;lwpag;gl;lJ. rPdhtpd; gpurpj;jpngw;w gz;ila Jiw efukhf tpsq;fpajhff; $wg;gLk;; Quanzhou tpy; fz;lwpag;gl;l ,e;jf; fy;ntl;bid> 1978Mk; Mz;by>; T. N. Rg;gpukzpak; vd;gtH jdJ “A Tamil Colony in Medieval China” vd;w Ma;Tf;fl;LiuA+lhfr; rPd nkhop njhpahjtHfSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpapUe;jhH. ,e;jf; fy;;ntl;bid mz;ikf;; fhyj;jpy; [g;ghdpa Taisho gy;fiyf; fofj;jpdUk; Muha;e;Js;sdH.

6 thpfisf; nfhz;l ,f;fy;ntl;lhdJ> rfhg;jk; 1203MtJ rpj;jpiu rpj;jpiu ehspy;> jtr;rf;futj;jpfs; rk;ge;jg;ngUkhs;;> “…. ehadhUf;Ff; Nfhapy; vLj;jJ gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. ,f;Nfhapy; ve;j ehadhUf;F vLf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij fy;ntl;^lhfr; rhpahf thrpf;f Kbatpy;iy. thpfs; 3> 4> 5 ,y;> jpU(fh)dpr;RuKila ehadhiu VwpaUsg; gz;zpdhH rk;ge;jg;ngUkhs; Md jtr;rf;futj;jpfs;; vd vOjg;gl;bUg;gjhf [g;ghdpag; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpduhy; thrpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

[g;ghdpa Muha;thsHfs;;> mJ xU rptd; Nfhtpy; njhlHghdJ vd;Ws;sdH. ,f;NfhapyhdJ> nrirf;fhd; gHkhd;gb mikf;fg;gl;ljhff; fy;ntl;bd; 5Mk;> 6Mk; thpfs; $Wfpd;wd. ,ij mtHfs;> rPdhtpd; murd; vd;Ws;sdH. rpdhtpy; rptd; Nfhtpy; fl;lg;;gl;lJ njhlHghfg; gy IjPfq;fs; mq;F ,Ug;gjhff; $wg;gLfpwJ.

vJtpjj;jpYk;> ,f;fy;ntl;by;> jtr;rf;futj;jpfs; rk;ge;jg;ngUkhs; gw;wpg; Ngrg;gl;Ls;sJ. MfNt> rk;ge;jg;;ngUkhs; xU Jwtp vd;gJ njspthfpwJ. ,e;jg; ngaUk;> fy;ntl;Lk;> ,e;jr; rk;ge;jg;;ngUkhs; vd;w Jwtpahdtd;;> jkpod; vd;gij typAWj;Jfpd;wd.

njd;dpyq;ifapd; NjtefUld; njhlHghd xU jkpo;g;; ngsj;;j Jwtp> gHkh> ahth-Rkhj;jpuh> jha;;yhe;J vd;gitfSlhff; fpof;Nf NghapUe;;Js;shd; vd;gij ,q;F Muha;e;Jte;Js;s jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fSlhf cWjpg;gLj;jp tUfpNwhk;. NkYk;> ngUe;Njtd;; vd;w k`hahz jkpo;g; ngsj;j Jwtp> rPdh> [g;ghd; tiu nrd;W> me;j nkhopfisAk; ed;F mwpe;jpUe;;Js;shd; vd;w mbg;gilapy;jhd; ,e;jf; fpof;F ehLfspy; jkpo;f;; fy;ntl;Lf;fs; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w Kbtpy;> jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fis Muha Kw;gl;bUe;Njhk;. ,e;jepiyapy;> [hth-Rkhj;jpuh> jha;yhe;J tiu> vkJ Kd;KbT rhpahdjhf Mfpte;Js;sJ. ,g;nghOJ> rPdhtpYk; jkpo;f; fy;ntl;by; jkpo;j; Jwtp xUtH Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;shH. mtH ehadhUf;F> jiytDf;F> NjtDf;Ff; Nfhapy; vLj;Js;sjhfTk; fy;ntl;Lf; $WfpwJ. ,J> Gj;jngUkhDf;F> rptDf;Ff; Nfhapy; vLj;jjhfNt ,Uf;fKbAk;. rptd; vd;gJ: Nkd;ik epiwT <Hg;G> ,Og;Gf; nfhz;bUg;gtdhFk;. MfNt> rptd; vd;gJ: md;Gkakhdtd;> mUs;kakhdtd; MFk;. mJ> nkhopapy;;hPjpapy;> Gj;jngUkhid milahsg;gLj;Jk;.

nkhopapay; hPjpapy;> rk;ge;jngUkhs; vd;gJ> ngUe;;Njtd; vd;gJld; xd;Wk;. rk;ge;jd; vd;gJ ngUkhd;> Njtd; vd;gitfisAk; Fwpf;Fk;.

,e;jepiyapy;> ngUnkhopahuha;thsj; jkpo;g; ngsj;j Jwtpjhd;;> rPPdhtpd; jkpo; fy;ntl;LlDk; njhlHGilatdhf ,Ue;Js;shd;.

Mdhy;> ,gd; gj;J}j;jh vd;gtDk;> rPdhtpd; Zaytun, Sin-kalan, Sin-a-Sin. Quanjanfu, Khansa (Hong-chow), Khita (Cathay)  vd;gitfSf;Fr; nrd;Ws;shd;. mtd;> rPdhtpd; Zaytun vd;w ,lj;jpid> njd;dpyq;ifAld; tpNrlkhf ,izj;Js;shd;. mtd; ,yq;ifapd; kiy cr;rpapy; ,Uf;Fk; Gj;jngUkhdpd; ghj milahsk; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLifapy;> gpd;tUkhW $wpAs;shd;:

“In ancient days the Chinese came here and cut out of the rock the mark of the great toe and the adjoining parts. They put this in the temple at Zaytun.”      

mtd;> NjtefH my;yJ njtpEtu vd;w Dinawar vd;gjw;Fk; kpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;jpUg;gJ> ,gd; gj;J}j;jhTf;Fk;> ,e;jj; jkpo;g; ngsj;j Jwtpf;Fk; VjhtJ njhlHGs;sjh vd;gij Muha;e;jwpaj; J}z;LfpwJ. 

,e;jj; jkpo;g; ngsj;j Jwtp> rPdhTld; epy;yhJ [g;ghDf;Fk; NghapUf;fNt re;jHg;gq;fs; mjpfk; cz;L. Mdhy;> ,d;Wtiu> [g;ghdpy; jkpo;f; fy;ntl:;L vJTk;; fz;lwpag;gl;ljhf mwpag;gltpy;iy.

Mdhy;> [g;ghdpa nkhopf;Fk;> jkpo; nkhopf;Fk; njhlHGfs; ,Ue;Js;sd vdf; $wg;gl;LtUtUfpwJ.   

4.      jha;yhe;jpd;; Khuan Luk Pat  jkpo;; gpuhkp vOj;J ciu fy;;; (Touch stone):

1992Mk; Mz;by; [g;ghdpa Taisho University Muha;thsHfshy; njd; jha;;yhe;jpd; Krabi Privince ,y; mike;;;Js;s Wat Khlong Thom njhy;nghUsfj;jpy; Nkw;; nfhz;l Muha;tpd;NghJ> 7.5 cm x 3.7 cm x 3 cm msTfSila gr;ir epwkhd fy;nyd;wpy; jkpo; gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fspy; ngUk;gj;;jd; fy;; (Permpatan kal) vd vOjg;gl;bUe;jik fz;lwpag;gl;lJ.

,e;jj; jkpo;g; gpuhkp vOj;Jila nghUspd; fhyj;;;jpid Muha;thsHfs; fp. gp. 2-3Mk; E}w;whz;nldf; $wpAs;sdH. NkYk;> ,e;jf; fy;yhdJ> jkpofj;jpypUe;J jha;yhe;jpy; FbNawpa xU gj;jdpd;; (Gold smith) ciu fy; vd;w KbTf;Fk; mtHfs; te;Js;sdH.

Mdhy;> ,q;F vOk; Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why;> fp. gp. 2 -3Mk; E}w;whz;Lg; gFjpapy; jha;yhe;jpd; Fwpg;gpl;l gFjpapy; FbNawpapUe;j rhjhuz jkpo;g; gj;jd;> Vd; jkpopy; jdJ fy;ypy; vOjhJ> jkpo; gpuhkpapy; vOjpapUe;jhd; vd;gjhFk;. ,d;iwa jkpo; vOj;Jf;fs;; md;W> fp. gp. 2 3 Mk; E}w;whz;Lfhyg; gFjpapy;>  cUthf;fg;gl;bUe;jpUf;ftpy;iyah? njhy;fhg;;gpakhdJ fp. K. 4Mk;; E}w;whz;by; ,aw;wg;gl;lnjd Ma;thsHfs; $WtJ vd;d? jkpofj;jpy; jkpo; vOj;J nkhopahdJ tpUj;jpaile;j epiyapy; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;> jha;yhe;jpy; jkpo;g; gj;jd; Vd; gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fisg; gad;gLj;jpapUf;fNtz;Lk;?

,J> xd;wpy;;> njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; fhyk;; gw;wpa KbT gpioahdjhf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;> my;yJ> jha;yhe;Jj; jkpo;g; gpuhkp vOj;jpdbg;gilapy; tug;gl;l KbT gpioahdjhf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;> my;yJ ,uz;Lk; gpioahdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijNa typAWj;JfpwJ.

jkpo;g; gpuhkp nkhopahdJ md;W rhjhuzkhfj; jkpo; kf;fshy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L te;jJ vd;gjw;F ve;j tpj Mjhuq;fSk; ,y;iy. kWGwj;jpy;> jkpofj;jpy; fz;lwpag;;gl;l rpy E}W jkpo;g; gpuhkp fy;ntl;Lf;fSk;> jdpikahd fw;Fifg; gFjpfspy;jhd; ngUkstpy; fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sd. mit ngUk;ghYk; Jwtpfspd; FiffSld; njhlHghdjhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

,w;jepiyapy;> ,e;jf; fy;yhdJ Vd; xU JwtpAld; njhlHghdjhf ,Uf;fKbahJ?

Jwtp xUtDf;Fk;> ,g;gbahd ciu fy; ,w;Fk; vd;d njhlHG ,Ue;jpUf;fKbAk; vd;w Nfs;tp vOg;gg;glyhk;.

Mdhy;> ,e;jf; fy;ypid Vd; nghd;id ciuf;Fk; fy; vd khj;jpuk; fUjNtz;Lk;?

xU GytDk;> mwpQDk;$l> ,g;gbahd xU fy;ypid itj;jpUf;fKbAk;. Vnddpy;> mtHfs; jkJ vOj;jhzpia fy;ypy; Nja;;j;Jf; $uhf;fp> Xiyfspy; vOj> ,g;gbahd ciufy; mtHfsplk; vg;nghOJk; ,Uf;fNt nra;Ak;!

,e;jepiyapy;> jha;yhe;jpy; fz;lwpag;gl;l fy;yhdJ xU gold smith ,d; ciu fy; vd;w KbTf;Ftu> [g;ghdpag; gy;fiyf; fof Muha;thsHfsplkpUe;j Mjhuq;fs; vit?

,f;Nfs;tpia [g;ghdpa Muha;thsHfsplk; khj;jpuk;jhd; Nfl;f Ntz;Lk; vd;wpy;iy! “Early Tamil Epigraphy” (2003) vd;w E}iy vOjpapUe;j Iuhtjk; kfhNjtd; mtHfSk;> jdJ E}ypd; gf;fk; - 51 ,y;> ,g;gbj;jhd; $wpAs;shH.

,e;j ,U rhuhUk; ,g;gbf; $wpajw;F Kd;itj;j epahag;gLj;jy; vd;dntd;why;> jkpo; gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fs; fhzg;gLk; me;jf; fy;ypy; ngUk;;gj;jd; fy;;; vd vOjg;gl;bUg;gjhFk;!

Iuhtjk; kfhNjtd; gpd;tUkhW $wpAs;shH: “ As Pattan in Tamil means a ‘goldsmith’, the inscribed stone has been identified as a touchstone (uraikal) foe testing fineness of gold.”

[g;ghdpag; NguhrphpaH N. Karashima Tk;> ,g;gbahd tpsf;fj;jpidNa nfhLj;Js;shH.

vJtpjj;jpYk;> ,q;F vOk; kpf Kf;fpa Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why;> gj;jd; vd;why; vd;d vd;gJk;@  ngUk;gj;jd; vd;why; vd;d vd;gJk; MFk;.

gj;jd;; vd;gjw;Fj; jkpo; mfuhjpfs;: md;GilNahd;> a devotee, a vortary or adherent of a religious system vdj; je;Js;sd. gj;jh vd;gjw;F: GUld;;> a husband vdj; je;Js;sd.

gj;jd; vd;gJ: gj; + md;; MFk;. gj; vd;gJ: g; + m + j; MFk;. rpj;jhtj;ij cjaFkhH nkhopf; Nfhl;ghL (1998) ,idg; gpuNahfpj;jhy;> gj;; vd;gJ: xd;wpypUe;J Njhd;Wk;> cz;lhFk; caHr;rpj; jd;ikahFk;.

nkhopapay; hPjpapy;> gj;> ghj; vd;gitfSf;fpilapy; mjpf NtWghby;iy. gj; jd;ik nfhz;ltd;> gj;jd;; MFk;.

MfNt> gj;> ghj; vd;gitfs; gytw;wpy; milahsq;fhzg;glKbAk;. ngU(k;)> NrhW> top> xOq;F> md;G> mUs;> jho;r;;rpj; jd;ik> vdg; gytw;wpy; ,tw;iw milahsk; fhzyhk;.

MfNt> gj;jd; vd;gJ: nghpNahd;> md;GilNahd;> mUSilNahd;> Njtd;> vdnty;yhk; tUk;.

,e;jepiyapy;: ngUk;gj;jd; vd;gJ: NguUshsd;> Ngud;GilNahd;> ngUe;Njtd; vdnty;yhk; tUk;. ,it Gj;jngUkhidAk; Fwpf;fKbAk;.

,e;jepiyapy;> ngUk;gj;jd; fy; vd;gJ: ngUe;Njtd; fy; vdtUk;!

kPz;Lk; ehk; ngUe;Njtd; vd;gtidNa ,q;F re;jpf;fpNwhk;. ngUe;Njtd; vd;w k`hahz ngsj;j Jwtp> ngUk; nkhopahuha;thsd; vd;gijAk; ghHj;jpUe;Njhk;@ mtd;; fpof;Nf rPdh [g;ghd; Kjy Nkw;Nf fpwPR tiuahd nkhopfis ed;F mwpe;jpUe;jhd; vd;gijAk;> mtd; tPuNrhopak; ,yf;fz E}Yf;F ciu vOjpapUe;jhd; vd;gijAk; mwpe;jpUe;Njhk;. ,q;Fk;> mtd; jdJ nrhy; - nghUs; njhlHG tpsf;f mbg;gilapy;> jdJ Kj;jpiuiaf; Fj;jpAs;shd;!

,e;jepiyapy;> ngUk;gj;jd; fy; vd;gJ nghd; ciuf;Fk; fy; vd;w tpsf;fk; Kw;wpYk; gpioahdjhfpwJ. Khwhf> mJ ngUk;Njtdpd; vOj;jhzp jPl;Lk; fy; MFk;!

,it midj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhf> vkf;F kpf Kf;fpa tplak; xd;W njhpa tUfpwJ. mJ vd;dntd;why;: ngUe;Njtd; vd;;w ngUk; nkhopahuha;thsdhd; khahz jkpo;g; ngsj;jd; gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fSld; njhlHGilatdhf ,Ug;;gJ!

,J gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fspd; cUthf;fk;@ mjd; fhyk;@ gz;ila fy;ntl;Lf;fs;> ehzaq;fs;> kl;ghz;lq;fspd; fhyq;fs;@ jkpo; vOj;Jf;fspd; cUthf;fk;@ rpq;fs vOj;Jf;fspd; cUthf;fk;@ ,yf;fpaq;fspd; cUthf;fk;;@ tuhyhWfs;;> vd;gitfs; njhlHghf Kd;ida Muha;thsHfshy; tug;gl;l KbTfs; vdr; rfytw;iwAk; Nfs;tpf;Fhpajhf Mf;Ffpd;wJ!

kWGwj;jpy;> ,J mwptpay;; vd;gJ njhlHghfTk;> ngUk; Nfs;tpia vOg;GfpwJ!

,e;jepiyapy;> ,q;F tug;gl;l KbT rhpahdJjhd vd;gij Nkyjpf Ma;TfSlhf cWjpg;gLj;jNtz;bAs;sJ. MfNt> ehk; fy;ntl;Lf;fisj; njhlHe;J Muha;Nthk;.    

5.      njd;dpe;jpa> njd;dpyq;if> fpof;F ehLfspd; jkpo;> jkpo; gpuhkpf; fy;ntl;Lf;fSk;> tzpff; fzq;fs;;; Nfhl;ghLk;:

fpof;F ehLfspy; fz;lwpag;gl;l jkpo;> jkpo; gpuhkp fy;ntl;Lf;fis Muha;e;Js;s ,e;jpa> [g;ghdpa> kw;Wk; Muha;thsHfs;> mf;fy;ntl;Lf;fs; tzpff; fzq;fs;; (Merchant Guilds) njhlHghdit vdf; $wp> gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;jpw;Fk;> fpof;F ehLfSf;fpilapYk; tpahghuk; eilngw;Wte;Js;snjd;Wk;> gz;ilf; fhyj;jpNyNa rPPdhtiu jkpoHfs; tpahghu> kw;Wk; Nehf;fq;fspy; FbNawpAkpUe;Js;sdH vd;Wk; xU Nfhl;;ghl;bid Kd;itj;Js;sdH.

mtHfs; jkJ KbTfSf;F> ,q;F Muhag;gl;Ls;s jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fisAk;> mtw;wpy; $wg;gl;bUg;gitfisAk;> ,yq;if> jkpofj; jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fs; rpytw;wpy; $wg;;gl;Ls;sitfisAk; Mjhukhf Kd;itj;Js;sdH.

,j;jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s rpy nrhw;nwhlHfs; xd;whf ,Ug;gijNa mtHfs; jkJ Kbit epahag;gLj;j Kd;itj;Js;sdH. mr;nrhw;nwhlHfs; gpd;tUtdthFk;: ehdhNjrp> IE}w;WtH> kNfhijaH gl;bdk;> kzpfpuhkk;> tPu nfhbahH> gjpndz;G+kp tPuH> kw;Wk; rpy.

,e;jr; nrhw;nwhlHfs; fhzg;gLk; jkpof; fy;;;ntl;Lf;;;fSs;;> ,yq;ifapYk;> jkpofj;jpYk; fz;lwpag;;gl;l fy;ntl;Lf;fspy; gy milahsq;fSk; (symbols) fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mj;;Jld;> jkpofj;jpy; fz;lwpag;gl;l jkpo;g; gpuhkpf; fy;ntl;Lf;fspYk;> gy symbols fhzg;;gLfpd;wd. ,ijtpl> njd;dpyq;ifapy; fz;lwpag;gl;l gpuhkpf; fy;;ntl;Lf;fspYk;> gy symbols fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

,e;jepiyapy;> ,e;jr; symbols ck;> ,f;;fy;;ntl;Lf;fs; vit njhlHghdit vd;gijawpag; nghpJk; cjt KbAk;.

,f;fy;ntl;Lf;fis Muha;e;;Js;s ,e;jpa> ,yq;if> [g;ghdpa> kw;Wk; Muha;thsHfSs; kpfkpfr; rpyNu mtw;wpy; fhzg;;gLk;; symbols gw;wp Muha;e;Js;sdH. Taisho University apd;; Ma;Tf; fl;LiufspYk;> symbols ,w;F jFe;j Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fg;glhj epiyjhd; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

jkpof> ,yq;ifj; jkpo;f;; fy;ntl;Lf;fSs; thzpff; fzq;fSld; njhlHghdit vdf; fUjg;gLk; fy;;ntl;Lf;fs; rpygw;wp> S. Rajagopal mtHfs;;> “Symbols on the Inscribed Stones of the Merchant Guilds” vd;w Ma;Tf; fl;Liuia [g;ghdpa Taisho University apdhy; ntspaplg;;gl;l “Ancient and Medieval Commercial Activities in the Indian Ocean: Tesimony of Inscriptions and Ceramic-sherds” (2002) vd;w Ma;Tj; njhFg;G E}ypy; vOjpAs;shH. mtuJ Ma;T tpQ;Qhdj; jd;ikaw;wjhfTk;> KbTfs; gpioahdjhfTk;jhd; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

,tiutpl> symbols fhzg;gLk; njd;dpyq;ifj; jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fs; gw;wp> NguhrphpaH M. NtYg;;gps;isatHfs; Muha;e;J> Ma;Tf;fl;Liufis vOjp As;shH> E}y; xd;wpid ,uz;L gFjpfshfTk; ntspapl;;Ls;shH. Mdhy;> mtH symbols njhlHghf ve;jtpj ftdKk; nrYj;jtpy;iy. mtH jdJ Ceylon Tamil Inscriptions” PartI & II (1971, 1972) vd;w E}y;fis> jkpo; nkhop Ma;Tf;fhd mbg;gilapy;jhd; vOjpAs;shNuad;wp> tuyhw;W Ma;T mbg;gilapy; vOjtpy;iy. ,J> ngUk;ghYk;> mtH jkpo; nkhopapy; caH gl;lk; ngWtjw;fhfr; nra;ag;gl;l Ma;tpid> xU  E}yhf ntspapl;l jd;ikiaj;jhd; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy;> mtH Muha;e;jpUe;j gy jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fspy; fhzg;gl;l symbols ,id MuhahJ tpl;Ls;shH. nkhopapy; hPjpapYk;$l> fy;ntl;Lf;;fspy; fhzg;gLk; jkpo;r; nrhw;fisg; gw;wpa mtuJ Ma;TfSk;> tpsf;fq;fSk;> tpQ;Qhdj; jd;ikaw;witahfTk;> fw;gdhthjkhditahfTk;jhd; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. 

vJtpjj;jpYk;> mtH fy;ntl;Lg;gw;wpa fUj;Jf;fisAk;> fhyj;jpidAk; Fwpg;gpLk;NghJ> sysmbols gw;wpa Ma;tpid xd;wpizf;fhj epiyapy;> fy;ntl;Lf;fs; gw;wpa mthpd; tpsf;fq;;fSk;> KbTfSk; gpioahdjhfTk;> fw;gdhthjq;fshfTk;jhd; MfpAs;sd.

RUq;ff;$wpdhy;> mtuJ jkpo;f; fy;ntl;Lf;fs; njhlHghd E}yhdJ> vd;ndd;;d gz;ila fy;ntl;Lf;fs; rpy ,yq;ifapy; jkpo; nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sd vd;w tpguq;fis khj;jpuk; rhpahfg; ngw cjTk; xU njhFg;G E}yhf cs;sJ! jkpo;nkhop> tuyhW vd;gitfisg; nghWj;jkl;by;> me;j E}yhdJ ve;jtpj tpQ;Qhd hPjpapyhd Ma;Tf;Fk; gad;glkhl;lhj xU E}yhfNt cs;sJ. ,g;gbahf Ma;TfNs md;W caHgl;lf; fy;tpf;Fg; nghpJk; gad;gl;ld. ,d;Wk;> mJjhd; cz;ikepiy.

 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
     

 
     

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